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A Beginner's Guide to JWTs

A Beginner's Guide to JWTs

JSON Web Tokens (JWT) are used everywhere (even places they shouldn’t be). This post will cover the basics of what you need to know about JWT and the related specifications in the Javascript Object Signing and Encryption (JOSE) family.

JWT is pronounced "jot".

What is a JWT?

A JWT is a structured security token format used to encode JSON data. The main reason to use JWT is to exchange JSON data in a way that can be cryptographically verified. There are two types of JWTs:

  • JSON Web Signature (JWS)

  • JSON Web Encryption (JWE)

The data in a JWS is public—meaning anyone with the token can read the data—whereas a JWE is encrypted and private. To read data contained within a JWE, you need both the token and a secret key.

When you use a JWT, it’s usually a JWS. The 'S' (the signature) is the important part and allows the token to be validated. For the rest of this post, I will talk about the JWS format and walk through decoding an example JWT.

How JWTs Are Used

OAuth 2.0 identity providers (IdP) commonly use JWTs for access tokens. You may have seen an HTTP request with an authorization header that looks like this:

Authorization: Bearer eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiJ9.eyJuYW1lIjoiSm9lIENvZGVyIn0.5dlp7GmziL2QS06sZgK4mtaqv0_xX4oFUuTDh1zHK4U
JWT access tokens are NOT part of the OAuth 2.0 specification, but almost all IdPs support them.

Using a JWT (actually a JWS) allows the token to be validated locally, without making an HTTP request back to the IdP, thereby increasing your application’s performance. Applications can make use of data inside the token, further reducing expensive HTTP calls and database lookups.

JWT Structure

A JWS (the most common type of JWT) contains three parts separated by a dot (.). The first two parts (the "header" and "payload") are Base64-URL encoded JSON, and the third is a cryptographic signature.

Let’s look at an example JWT:


Breaking this down into the individual sections we have:

eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiJ9 # header
eyJuYW1lIjoiSm9lIENvZGVyIn0 # payload
5dlp7GmziL2QS06sZgK4mtaqv0_xX4oFUuTDh1zHK4U #signature
If you have a JWT with more than three sections, it’s probably a JWE.

Next, each of the first two sections are base64-url decoded:

{"alg":"HS256"} # header
{"name":"Joe Coder"} # payload
5dlp7GmziL2QS06sZgK4mtaqv0_xX4oFUuTDh1zHK4U #signature
On macOS (with "coreutils" installed), you can base64-url decode the strings on the command line with: echo eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiJ9 | gbasenc -d --base64url

The last section in the JWT, the signature, is also base64-url encoded, but it’s just binary data; if you try to decode it, you will end up with non-displayable characters:


You can use a tool like hexdump to view the signatures content:

$ echo "5dlp7GmziL2QS06sZgK4mtaqv0_xX4oFUuTDh1zHK4U=" | gbasenc -d --base64url | hexdump

0000000 e5 d9 69 ec 69 b3 88 bd 90 4b 4e ac 66 02 b8 9a
0000010 d6 aa bf 4f f1 5f 8a 05 52 e4 c3 87 5c c7 2b 85

JWT Claims

Once you start using JWTs you start hearing the word "claim" everywhere. A JWT claim is a key/value pair in a JSON object. In the example above, "name": "Joe Coder", the claim key is name and the value is Joe Coder. The value of a claim can be any JSON object.

There are three types of claims: "registered," "public," and "private." You can find the list of registered and public claims in the official IANA Registry. You can also add any other custom claim to a JWT; these are known as "private claims."

When using private claims, watch out for name collisions with the official claims.

The use of registered claims is optional, but when they are present, they MUST be validated. For example, a JWT may contain date-time fields that describe when the token is valid.

  • Issued At (iat) - The time the JWT was created

  • Expiration Time (exp) - The time at which the JWT is no longer valid

  • Not Before (nbf) - The earliest time the JWT would be valid

Timestamps are "seconds since the epoch" integer format. JWT libraries usually add up to a few minutes of leeway to these values to account for clock skew between systems.

When an Okta authorization server returns an access or ID token to a client, two claims are of particular note:

  • Scopes (scp) - A list of accessible data points about the user - name, groups, etc. - and the client’s API access rights as that user.

  • Audience (aud) - A list of parties the token should be sent to and parsed by. In the access token, the audience is the Okta Authorization Server’s Issuer URI requesting Okta API access or the customer’s API URI requesting customer API access. In the id token, however, it’s the client ID. Working with Okta, only one server is being targeted, so the list should only contain one item.

For more information, see the Scopes and Tokens and Claims sections of Okta’s OIDC API reference.

JWT Header

The header of a JWT contains information about how the token was created. In my example, the "algorithm" (alg) claim is set to HS256, which specifies the hashing algorithm HMAC SHA-256 is used to generate or validate the signature.

  "alg": "HS256"
A JWT signature can be disabled by setting the algorithm claim to none. Using the none algorithm should be avoided; see the Problems with JWT section below.

JWT Signature

The JWT specifications list a few different signing algorithms; each of these algorithms works slightly different. For simplicity’s sake, there are two types of algorithms: - HMAC based shared secret, these all start with the prefix HS, which stands for HMAC SHA) - Public key pair (either RSA or ECDSA keys)

Caution is needed when using a shared secret, as anyone with the secret can create (or forge) new JWTs. If you need to validate a JWT from an untrusted client (web-page, mobile app, etc.), use a public key pair instead.

The JWT in this example (actually a JWS, remember the 'S' stands for "signature") uses the HS256 algorithm. To validate the JWS, calculate the HMAC of the first two parts of the token, then compare the output with the base64-url decoded signature.

On the command line, you can use openssl to check the signature:

echo -n 'eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiJ9.eyJuYW1lIjoiSm9lIENvZGVyIn0' | \
openssl dgst -sha256 -macopt hexkey:${secret_key_in_hex} -mac hmac -binary | \
gbasenc --base64url | sed 's/=//'

If the output matches the original signature block, the signature is valid.

Problems with JWTs

Fully validating a JWT is MUCH more complex than running a couple CLI commands. There are many edge cases and exploits; you should ALWAYS use a trusted JWT library and keep it up to date.

Visit to debug JWTs from within your browser!

One of the biggest problems with the JWT, is the signature verification to be disabled by setting the algorithm header claim to none. Many JWT library vulnerabilities have been related to the none algorithm.


When base64-url decoded this JWT contains the same information as the original example (minus the signature):

{"name":"Joe Coder"}

There is nothing secure about this example because it’s missing the signature; it cannot be cryptographically verified.

Avoid using the none algorithm. When possible, configure your JWT library to only allow a specific list of algorithms.

Learn More About JWT

When used correctly, JWT can help with both authorization and transferring data between two parties. As with all security topics, it’s not a generic solution; deciding to use JWTs is often a security vs. performance trade-off. Validating a token locally does NOT check if it has been revoked, e.g., a user has logged out or has been deleted. Keeping the life span of the token short (by setting the "expiration" claim) can help mitigate the risk.

Learn more about JWTs and building secure applications with these links:

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  • Aug 3, 2023: Add clarification to JWT Claims section about scp and aud

Brian Demers is a Developer Advocate at Okta and a PMC member for the Apache Shiro project. He spends much of his day contributing to OSS projects in the form of writing code, tutorials, blogs, and answering questions. Along with typical software development, Brian also has a passion for fast builds and automation. Away from the keyboard, Brian is a beekeeper and can likely be found playing board games. You can find him on Twitter at @briandemers.

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