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Expressions allow you to reference, transform and combine attributes before you store them on a user profile or before passing them to an application for authentication or provisioning. For example, you might use a custom expression to create a username by stripping @company.com from an email address. Or you might combine firstName and lastName attributes into a single displayName attribute.

This document details the features and syntax of Okta’s Expression Language which can be used throughout the Okta Admin Console and API. This document will be updated over time as new capabilities are added to the language. Okta’s expression language is based on SpEL and uses a subset of functionalities offered by SpEL.

Referencing User Attributes

When you create an Okta expression, you can reference any attribute that lives on an Okta user profile or App user profile.

Okta user profile

Every user has an Okta user profile. The Okta user profile is the central source of truth for a user’s core attributes. To reference an Okta user profile attribute, just reference user and specify the attribute variable name.

Syntax Definitions Examples
user.$attribute user reference to the Okta user
$attribute the attribute variable name

Application user profile

In addition to an Okta user profile, all users have separate Application user profiles for each of their applications. The Application user profiles are used to store application specific information about a user, such as application username or user role. To reference an App user profile attribute, just specify the application variable and the attribute variable in that application’s App user profile. In specifying the application you can either name the specific application you’re referencing or use an implicit reference to an in-context application.

Syntax Definitions Examples
$appuser.$attribute $appuser explicit reference to specific app
$attribute the attribute variable name
appuser.$attribute appuser implicit reference to in-context app
$attribute the attribute variable name

IdP user profile

In addition to an Okta user profile, some users have separate IdP user profiles for their external Identity Provider. These IdP user profiles are used to store identity provider specific information about a user, and this data can be used in an EL expression to transform an external user’s username into the equivalent Okta username. To reference an IdP user profile attribute, specify the identity provider variable and the corresponding attribute variable for that identity providers IdP user profile. This profile is only available when specifying the username transform used to generate an Okta username for the IdP user.

Syntax Definitions Examples
idpuser.$attribute idpuser implicit reference to in-context IdP
$attribute the attribute variable name

With Universal Directory, there are about 30 attributes in the base Okta profile and any number of custom attributes can be added. All App user profiles have a username attribute and possibly others depending on the application. To find a full list of Okta user and App user attributes and their variable names, go to People > Profile Editor. If you’re not yet using Universal Directory, contact your Support or Professional Services team.

Referencing Application and Organization Properties

In addition to referencing user attributes, you can also reference App properties, and the properties of your Organization. To reference a particular attribute, just specify the appropriate binding and the attribute variable name. Here are some examples:

Application properties

Syntax Definitions Examples
$app.$attribute $app explicit reference to specific app instance
$attribute the attribute variable name
app.$attribute app implicit reference to in-context app instance
$attribute the attribute variable name

Organization properties

Syntax Definitions Examples
org.$attribute org reference to Okta org
$attribute the attribute variable name


Okta offers a variety of functions to manipulate attributes or properties to generate a desired output. Functions can be combined and nested inside a single expression.

String Functions

Function Input Parameter Signature Return Type Example Output
String.append (String str, String suffix) String String.append("This is", " a test") This is a test
String.join (String separator, String… strings) String String.join(",", "This", "is", "a", "test") This,is,a,test
      String.join("", "This", "is", "a", "test") Thisisatest
String.len (String input) Integer String.len("This") 4
String.removeSpaces (String input) String String.removeSpaces("This is a test") Thisisatest
String.replace (String input, match, replacement) String String.replace("This is a test", "is", "at") “That at a test”
String.replaceFirst (String input, match, replacement) String String.replaceFirst("This is a test", "is", "at") “That is a test”
String.stringContains (String input, String searchString) Boolean String.stringContains("This is a test", "test") true
      String.stringContains("This is a test", "doesn'tExist") false
String.stringSwitch (String input, String defaultString, String… keyValuePairs) String String.stringSwitch("This is a test", "default", "key1", "value1") default
      String.stringSwitch("This is a test", "default", "is", "value1") value1
      String.stringSwitch("This is a test", "default", "key1", "value1", "test", "value2") value2
String.substring (String input, int startIndex, int endIndex) String String.substring("This is a test", 2, 9) is is a
String.substringAfter (String input, String searchString) String String.substringAfter("abc@okta.com", "@") okta.com
String.substringBefore (String input, String searchString) String String.substringBefore("abc@okta.com", "@") abc
String.toUpperCase (String input) String String.toUpperCase("This") THIS
String.toLowerCase (String input) String String.toLowerCase("ThiS") this

The following Deprecated functions perform some of the same tasks as the ones in the above table.

Function Example Input Output
toUppercase(string) toUppercase(source.firstName) Alexander ALEXANDER
toLowercase(string) toLowercase(source.firstName) AlexANDER alexander
substringBefore(string, string) substringBefore(user.email, '@') alex@okta.com alex
substringAfter(string, string) substringAfter(user.email, '@') alex@okta.com okta.com
substring(string, int, int) substring(source.firstName, 1, 4) Alexander lex

Array Functions

Function Return Type Example Output
Arrays.add(array, value) Array Arrays.add({10, 20, 30}, 40) {10, 20, 30, 40}
Arrays.remove(array, value) Array Arrays.remove({10, 20, 30}, 20) {10, 30}
Arrays.clear(array) Array Arrays.clear({10, 20, 30}) { }
Arrays.get(array, position) - Arrays.get({0, 1, 2}, 0) 0
Arrays.flatten(list of values) Array Arrays.flatten(10, {20, 30}, 40) {10, 20, 30, 40}
Arrays.contains(array, value) Boolean Arrays.contains({10, 20, 30}, 10) true
    Arrays.contains({10, 20, 30}, 50) false
Arrays.size(array) Integer Arrays.size({10, 20, 30}) 3
    Arrays.size(NULL) 0
Arrays.isEmpty(array) Boolean Arrays.isEmpty({10, 20}) false
    Arrays.isEmpty(NULL) true
Arrays.toCsvString(array) String Arrays.toCsvString({"This", "is", " a ", "test"}) This,is, a ,test

Conversion Functions

Data Conversion Functions
Function Return Type Example Input Output
Convert.toInt(string) Integer Convert.toInt(val) String val = ‘1234’ 1234
Convert.toInt(double) Integer Convert.toInt(val) Double val = 123.4 123
      Double val = 123.6 124
Convert.toNum(string) Double Convert.toNum(val) String val = ‘3.141’ 3.141

Note: Convert.toInt(double) rounds the passed numeric value either up or down to the nearest integer. Be sure to consider integer type range limitations when converting from a number to an integer with this function.

Country Code Conversion Functions

These functions convert between ISO 3166-1 2-character country codes (Alpha 2), 3-character country codes (Alpha 3), numeric country codes, and full ISO country names.

Function Return Type Example Output
Iso3166Convert.toAlpha2(string) String Iso3166Convert.toAlpha2("IND") “IN”
Iso3166Convert.toAlpha3(string) String Iso3166Convert.toAlpha3("840") “USA”
Iso3166Convert.toNumeric(string) String Iso3166Convert.toNumeric("USA") “840”
Iso3166Convert.toName(string) String Iso3166Convert.toName("IN") “India”

Note: All these functions take ISO 3166-1 2-character country codes (Alpha 2), 3-character country codes (Alpha 3), and numeric country codes as input. The function determines the input type and returns the output is in the format specified by the function name.

For more information on these codes, see the ISO 3166-1 online lookup tool.

Group Functions

Group functions return either an array of groups or True or False.

Function Return Type Example
getFilteredGroups Array getFilteredGroups({"00gml2xHE3RYRx7cM0g3"}, "group.name", 40)
Groups.contains Array contains(app_type/app_instance_id, pattern, limit)
Groups.startsWith Array startsWith(app_type/app_instance_id, pattern, limit)
Groups.endsWith Array endsWith(app_type/app_instance_id, pattern, limit)
isMemberOfGroupName Boolean isMemberOfGroupName("group1")
isMemberOfGroup Boolean isMemberOfGroup("groupId")
isMemberOfAnyGroup Boolean isMemberOfAnyGroup("groupId1", "groupId2", "groupId3")
isMemberOfGroupNameStartsWith Boolean isMemberOfGroupNameStartsWith("San Fr")
isMemberOfGroupNameContains Boolean isMemberOfGroupNameContains("admin")
isMemberOfGroupNameRegex Boolean isMemberOfGroupNameRegex("/.*admin.*")
Using Group Functions for Dynamic Group Whitelists

Three Group functions help you use dynamic group whitelists: contains, startsWith, and endsWith.

These functions return all the groups that match the specified criteria. Use this function to get a list of groups that include the current user is as a member.

You can use this function anywhere to get a list of groups of which the current user is a member, including both user groups and app groups that originate from sources outside Okta, such as from Active Directory and Workday. Additionally, you can use this combined, custom-formatted list for customizable claims into Access and ID Tokens that drive authorization flows. All three functions have the same parameters:

Parameter Description Nullable Example Values
app Application type or App ID FALSE "OKTA", "0oa13c5hnZFqZsoS00g4", "active_directory"
pattern Search term FALSE "Eastern-Region", "Eastern", "-Region"
limit Maximum number of groups returned. Must be a valid EL expression and evaluate to a value from 1 to 100. FALSE 1, 50, 100

To use these functions to create a token using a dynamic group whitelist, create a Groups claim on an app:

  1. In the Okta user interface, navigate to the Sign On tab of the client application you are configuring, and click Edit in the Open ID Connect ID Token section.

  2. In Groups claim type, choose Expression.

  3. In Group claims filter, leave the default name groups or change it if you wish.

  4. In Groups claim expression, add one of the three functions with the criteria for your dynamic group whitelist:

    Groups.startsWith("active.directory", "myGroup", 10)


  • The syntax for these three functions is different from getFilteredGroups.
  • You can also create a claim directly in a Custom Authorization Server instead of on the OpenID Connect or OAuth 2.0 app.
Using Groups Functions for Static Group Whitelists

The getFilteredGroups group function helps you use a static group whitelist.

getFilteredGroups returns all groups contained in a specified list, the whitelist, of which the user is a member. The groups are returned in a format specified by the group_expression parameter. You must specify the maximum number of groups to return. The format of this EL function is getFilteredGroups( whitelist, group_expression, limit).

You can use this function anywhere to get a list of groups of which the current user is a member, including both user groups and app groups that originate from sources outside Okta, such as from Active Directory and Workday. Additionally, you can use this combined, custom-formatted list for customizable claims into Access and ID Tokens that drive authorization flows.

This function takes Okta EL expressions for all parameters that evaluate to the correct data type. With these expressions you can create complex definitions for the whitelist, the group format, and for the number of groups to return that can include if logic and customized formatting.

Parameter Description Nullable
whitelist Valid Okta EL expression that evaluates to a string array of group ids FALSE
group_expression Valid Okta EL expression that evaluates to a string to use to evaluate the group. This string must also be a valid Okta EL expression. FALSE
limit Valid Okta EL expression that evaluates to an integer between 1 and 100, inclusive to indicate the maximum number of groups to return FALSE

All parameters must be valid Okta EL expressions that evaluate as described above. Okta EL expressions can be comprised of strings, integers, arrays, etc.

The string produced by the group_expression parameter usually contains attributes and objects from the Groups API, although it is not limited to those attributes and objects. Attributes and objects listed in the Group Attributes section of the Groups API can be any of the following: id, status, name, description, objectClass, and the profile object that contains the groupType, samAccountName, objectSid, groupScope, windowsDomainQualifiedName, dn, and externalID attributes for groups that come from apps such as Active Directory.

The whitelist parameter must evaluate to a list of group ids that is returned from the Groups API. If the user is not member of a group in the whitelist, the group is ignored.

Parameter Examples

  • whitelist
    • Array: {"00gn335BVurvavwEEL0g3", "00gnfg5BVurvavAAEL0g3"}
    • Array variable: app.profile.groups.whitelist
  • group_expression
    • Attribute name: "group.id"
    • Okta EL string containing an if condition: "(group.objectClass[0] == 'okta:windows_security_principal') ? 'AD: ' + group.profile.windowsDomainQualifiedName : 'Okta: ' + group.name" If okta:windows_security_principal is true for a group, the function returns the windowsDomainQualifiedName prefixed with AD:; otherwise, the function returns the group name prefixed with Okta:.
  • limit
    • Integer between 1 and 100, inclusive; for example: 50.
    • Okta EL expression containing a condition that evaluates to an integer: app.profile.maxLimit < 100 ? app.profile.maxLimit : 100. If the maximum group limit in the profile is less than 100, return that number of groups; otherwise, return a maximum of 100 groups. If there are more groups returned than the specified limit, an error is returned.

Time Functions

Function Input Parameter Signature Return Type Example Output
Time.now (String timeZoneId, String format) String Time.now() 2015-07-31T17:18:37.979Z (Current time, UTC format)
    Time.now("EST") 2015-07-31T13:30:49.964-04:00 (Specified time zone)  
    Time.now("EST", "YYYY-MM-dd HH:mm:ss") 2015-07-31 13:36:48 (Specified time zone and format, military time)  
Time.fromWindowsToIso8601 (String time) String Windows timestamp time as a string (Windows/LDAP timestamp doc) The passed-in time expressed in ISO 8601 format (specifically the RFC 3339 subset of the ISO standard).
Time.fromUnixToIso8601 (String time) String Unix timestamp time as a string (Unix timestamp reference) The passed-in time expressed in ISO 8601 format (specifically the RFC 3339 subset of the ISO standard).
Time.fromStringToIso8601 (String time, String format) String Timestamp time in a human-readable yet machine-parseable arbitrary format format (as defined by Joda time pattern) The passed-in time expressed in ISO 8601 format (specifically the RFC 3339 subset of the ISO standard).
Time.fromIso8601ToWindows (String time) String ISO 8601 timestamp time as a string The passed-in time expressed in Windows timestamp format.
Time.fromIso8601ToUnix (String time) String ISO 8601 timestamp time as a string The passed-in time expressed in Unix timestamp format.
Time.fromIso8601ToString (String time, String format) String ISO 8601 timestamp time, to convert to format using the same Joda time format semantics as fromStringToIso8601 The passed-in time expressed informat format.

Note: Both input parameters are optional for the Time.now function. The time zone ID supports both new and old style formats, listed below. The third example for the Time.now function shows how to specify the military time format.

Okta supports the use of the time zone IDs and aliases listed in the Time Zone Codes table.

Manager/Assistant Functions

Function Description Example
getManagerUser(managerSource).$attribute Gets the manager’s Okta user attribute values getManagerUser("active_directory").firstName
getManagerAppUser(managerSource, attributeSource).$attribute Gets the manager’s app user attribute values for the app user of any appinstance. getManagerAppUser("active_directory", "google").firstName
getAssistantUser(assistantSource).$attribute Gets the assistant’s Okta user attribute values. getAssistantUser("active_directory").firstName
getAssistantAppUser(assistantSource, attributeSource).$attribute Gets the assistant’s app user attribute values for the app user of any appinstance. getAssistantAppUser("active_directory", "google").firstName

Pass the correct app name for the managerSource, assistantSource, and attributeSource parameters.
Note: At this time, only active_directory is supported for managerSource and assistantSource.

Directory and Workday Functions

Function Description
hasDirectoryUser() Checks whether the user has an Active Directory assignment and returns a boolean
hasWorkdayUser() Checks whether the user has a Workday assignment and returns a boolean
findDirectoryUser() Finds the Active Directory App user object and returns that object, or null if the user has more than one or no Active Directory assignments
findWorkdayUser() Finds the Workday App user object and returns that object, or null if the user has more than one or no Active Directory assignments

The functions above are often used in tandem to check whether a user has an AD or Workday assignment, and if so return an AD or Workday attribute. See the ‘Popular Expressions’ table below for some examples.

Constants and Operators

Common Actions Example
Refer to a String constant 'Hello world'
Refer to a Integer constant 1234
Refer to a Number constant 3.141
Refer to a Boolean constant true
Concatenate two strings user.firstName + user.lastName
Concatenate two strings with space user.firstName + " " + user.lastName
Ternary operator example:
If group code is 123, assign value of Sales, else assign Other
user.groupCode == 123 ? 'Sales' : 'Other'

Conditional Expressions

You can specify IF…THEN…ELSE statements with the Okta EL. The primary use of these expressions is profile mappings and group rules. Group rules do not usually specificy an ELSE component.

The format for conditional expressions is

[Condition] ? [Value if TRUE] : [Value if FALSE]

There are several rules for specifying the condition.

  • Expressions must have valid syntax.
  • Expressions must evaluate to Boolean.
  • Expressions cannot contain an assignment operator, such as =.
  • User attributes used in expressions can contain only available User or AppUser attributes.

The following functions are supported in conditions.

  • Any Okta Expression Language function
  • The AND operator
  • The OR operator
  • The ! operator to designate NOT
  • Standard arithmetic operators including <, >, <=, and >=.

Note: Use the double equals sign, ==, to check for equality.


For these samples, assume that user has following attributes in Okta.

Attribute Type
firstName String
lastName String
middleInitial String
fullName String
honorificPrefix String
email1 String
email2 String
additionalEmail Boolean
city String
salary Int
isContractor Boolean
Samples Using Profile Mapping

The following samples are valid conditional expressions that apply to profile mapping. The attribute courtesyTitle is from another system being mapped to Okta.

If the middle initial is not blank, the full name is the first name, middle initial, a period, and the last name; otherwise it is the first name and the last name.
String.len(middleInitial) > 0 ? String.join(firstName, " ", middleInitial, ". ", lastName) : String.join(firstName, " ", lastName)

If there is a courtesy title, use it for the honorific prefix.
courtesyTitle != "" ? courtesyTitle : ""

If either email2 or email3 exists, make additionalEmail true; otherwise, make it false.
String.len(email2) > 0 OR String.len(email3) > 0 ? True : False

Samples Using Group Rules

The following samples are valid conditional expressions. The actions in these cases are group assignments.

IF (Implicit) Condition Assign to this Group Name if Condition is TRUE
IF String.stringContains(user.firstName, “dummy”) dummyUsers
IF user.city==”San Francisco” sfo
IF user.salary >=1000000 expensiveEmployee
IF !user.isContractor fullTimeEmployees
IF user.salary > 1000000 AND !user.isContractor expensiveFullTimeEmployees

Sample user data:

  • Firstname = Winston
  • Lastname = Churchill
  • Email = winston.churchill@gmail.com
  • Login = winston.churchill@gmail.com
Value to Obtain Expression Example Output Explanation
Firstname user.firstName Winston Obtain the value of users’ firstname attribute.
Firstname + Lastname user.firstName + user.lastName WinstonChurchill Obtain Firstname and Lastname values and append each together.
Firstname + Lastname with Separator user.firstName + "." + user.lastName Winston.Churchill Obtain Firstname value, append a “.” character. Obtain and append the Lastname value.
First Initial + Lastname substring(user.firstName, 0, 1) + user.lastName WChurchill Obtain Firstname value. From result, retrieve characters greater than position 0 thru position 1, including position 1. Obtain and append the Lastname value.
First Initial + Lastname with Limit substring(user.firstName, 0, 1) + substring(user.lastName, 0, 6) WChurch Obtain Firstname value. From result, retrieve 1 character starting at the beginning of the string. Obtain Lastname value. From result, retrieve characters greater than position 0 thru position 6, including position 6.
Lower Case First Initial + Lower Case Lastname with Separator toLowerCase(substring( user.firstName, 0, 1)) + "." + toLowerCase(user.lastName) w.churchhill Obtain Firstname value. From result, retrieve characters greater than position 0 thru position 1, including position 1. Convert result to lowercase. Append a “.” character. Obtain the Lastname value. Convert to lowercase and append.
Email Domain + Email Prefix with Separator toUpperCase(substringBefore( substringAfter(user.email, "@"), ".")) + "\" + substringBefore( user.email, "@") GMAIL\winston.churchill Obtain Email value. From result, parse everything after the “@ character”. From result, parse everything before the “.” character. Convert to uppercase. Append a backslash “" character. Obtain the email value again. From result, parse for everything before the “@” character.
Email Domain + Lowercase First Initial and Lastname with Separator toUpperCase(substringBefore( substringAfter(user.email, "@"), ".")) + "\" + toLowerCase(substring( user.firstName, 0, 1)) + toLowerCase(user.lastName) GMAIL\wchurchill Obtain Email value. From result, parse everything after the “@ character”. From result, parse everything before the “.” character. Convert to uppercase. Append a backslash “" character. Obtain the Firstname value. From result, retrieve characters greater than position 0 thru position 1, including position 1. Convert it to lowercase. Obtain the Lastname value and convert it to lowercase.
Static Domain + Email Prefix with Separator "XDOMAIN\" + toLowerCase(substring( user.firstName, 0, 1)) + toLowerCase(user.lastName) XDOMAIN\wchurchill Add “XDOMAIN” string. Append a backslash “" character. Obtain the Firstname value. From result, retrieve characters greater than position 0 thru position 1, including position 1. Convert it to lowercase. Obtain the Lastname value. Convert it to lowercase.
Workday ID hasWorkdayUser() ? findWorkdayUser().employeeID : null 123456 Check if user has a Workday assignment, and if so, return their Workday employee ID.
Active Directory UPN hasDirectoryUser() ? findDirectoryUser().managerUPN : null bob@okta.com Check if user has an Active Directory assignment, and if so, return their Active Directory manager UPN.

Appendix: Time Zone Codes

Okta supports the use of the following time zone codes:

Standard Offset Canonical ID Aliases
-12:00 Etc/GMT+12  
-11:00 Etc/GMT+11  
-11:00 Pacific/Apia  
-11:00 Pacific/Midway  
-11:00 Pacific/Niue  
-11:00 Pacific/Pago_Pago Pacific/Samoa, US/Samoa
-10:00 America/Adak America/Atka, US/Aleutian
-10:00 Etc/GMT+10  
-10:00 HST  
-10:00 Pacific/Fakaofo  
-10:00 Pacific/Honolulu US/Hawaii
-10:00 Pacific/Johnston  
-10:00 Pacific/Rarotonga  
-10:00 Pacific/Tahiti  
-09:30 Pacific/Marquesas  
-09:00 America/Anchorage US/Alaska
-09:00 America/Juneau  
-09:00 America/Nome  
-09:00 America/Yakutat  
-09:00 Etc/GMT+9  
-09:00 Pacific/Gambier  
-08:00 America/Dawson  
-08:00 America/Los_Angeles US/Pacific, US/Pacific-New
-08:00 America/Santa_Isabel  
-08:00 America/Tijuana America/Ensenada, Mexico/BajaNorte
-08:00 America/Vancouver Canada/Pacific
-08:00 America/Whitehorse Canada/Yukon
-08:00 Etc/GMT+8  
-08:00 PST8PDT  
-08:00 Pacific/Pitcairn  
-07:00 America/Boise  
-07:00 America/Cambridge_Bay  
-07:00 America/Chihuahua  
-07:00 America/Dawson_Creek  
-07:00 America/Denver America/Shiprock, Navajo, US/Mountain
-07:00 America/Edmonton Canada/Mountain
-07:00 America/Hermosillo  
-07:00 America/Inuvik  
-07:00 America/Mazatlan Mexico/BajaSur
-07:00 America/Ojinaga  
-07:00 America/Phoenix US/Arizona
-07:00 America/Yellowknife  
-07:00 Etc/GMT+7  
-07:00 MST  
-07:00 MST7MDT  
-06:00 America/Bahia_Banderas  
-06:00 America/Belize  
-06:00 America/Cancun  
-06:00 America/Chicago US/Central
-06:00 America/Costa_Rica  
-06:00 America/El_Salvador  
-06:00 America/Guatemala  
-06:00 America/Indiana/Knox America/Knox_IN, US/Indiana-Starke
-06:00 America/Indiana/Tell_City  
-06:00 America/Managua  
-06:00 America/Matamoros  
-06:00 America/Menominee  
-06:00 America/Merida  
-06:00 America/Mexico_City Mexico/General
-06:00 America/Monterrey  
-06:00 America/North_Dakota/Center  
-06:00 America/North_Dakota/New_Salem  
-06:00 America/Rainy_River  
-06:00 America/Rankin_Inlet  
-06:00 America/Regina Canada/East-Saskatchewan, Canada/Saskatchewan
-06:00 America/Swift_Current  
-06:00 America/Tegucigalpa  
-06:00 America/Winnipeg Canada/Central
-06:00 CST6CDT  
-06:00 Etc/GMT+6  
-06:00 Pacific/Easter Chile/EasterIsland
-06:00 Pacific/Galapagos  
-05:00 America/Atikokan America/Coral_Harbour
-05:00 America/Bogota  
-05:00 America/Cayman  
-05:00 America/Detroit US/Michigan
-05:00 America/Grand_Turk  
-05:00 America/Guayaquil  
-05:00 America/Havana Cuba
-05:00 America/Indiana/Indianapolis America/Fort_Wayne, America/Indianapolis US/East-Indiana
-05:00 America/Indiana/Marengo  
-05:00 America/Indiana/Petersburg  
-05:00 America/Indiana/Vevay  
-05:00 America/Indiana/Vincennes  
-05:00 America/Indiana/Winamac  
-05:00 America/Iqaluit  
-05:00 America/Jamaica Jamaica
-05:00 America/Kentucky/Louisville America/Louisville
-05:00 America/Kentucky/Monticello  
-05:00 America/Lima  
-05:00 America/Montreal  
-05:00 America/Nassau  
-05:00 America/New_York US/Eastern
-05:00 America/Nipigon  
-05:00 America/Panama  
-05:00 America/Pangnirtung  
-05:00 America/Port-au-Prince  
-05:00 America/Resolute  
-05:00 America/Thunder_Bay  
-05:00 America/Toronto Canada/Eastern
-05:00 EST  
-05:00 EST5EDT  
-05:00 Etc/GMT+5  
-04:30 America/Caracas  
-04:00 America/Anguilla  
-04:00 America/Antigua  
-03:00 America/Argentina/San_Luis  
-04:00 America/Aruba  
-04:00 America/Asuncion  
-04:00 America/Barbados  
-04:00 America/Blanc-Sablon  
-04:00 America/Boa_Vista  
-04:00 America/Campo_Grande  
-04:00 America/Cuiaba  
-04:00 America/Curacao  
-04:00 America/Dominica  
-04:00 America/Eirunepe  
-04:00 America/Glace_Bay  
-04:00 America/Goose_Bay  
-04:00 America/Grenada  
-04:00 America/Guadeloupe America/Marigot, America/St_Barthelemy
-04:00 America/Guyana  
-04:00 America/Halifax Canada/Atlantic
-04:00 America/La_Paz  
-04:00 America/Manaus Brazil/West
-04:00 America/Martinique  
-04:00 America/Moncton  
-04:00 America/Montserrat  
-04:00 America/Port_of_Spain  
-04:00 America/Porto_Velho  
-04:00 America/Puerto_Rico  
-04:00 America/Rio_Branco America/Porto_Acre, Brazil/Acre
-04:00 America/Santiago Chile/Continental
-04:00 America/Santo_Domingo  
-04:00 America/St_Kitts  
-04:00 America/St_Lucia  
-04:00 America/St_Thomas America/Virgin
-04:00 America/St_Vincent  
-04:00 America/Thule  
-04:00 America/Tortola  
-04:00 Antarctica/Palmer  
-04:00 Atlantic/Bermuda  
-04:00 Atlantic/Stanley  
-04:00 Etc/GMT+4  
-03:30 America/St_Johns Canada/Newfoundland
-03:00 America/Araguaina  
-03:00 America/Argentina/Buenos_Aires America/Buenos_Aires
-03:00 America/Argentina/Catamarca America/Argentina/ComodRivadavia, America/Catamarca
-03:00 America/Argentina/Cordoba America/Cordoba, America/Rosario
-03:00 America/Argentina/Jujuy America/Jujuy
-03:00 America/Argentina/La_Rioja  
-03:00 America/Argentina/Mendoza America/Mendoza
-03:00 America/Argentina/Rio_Gallegos  
-03:00 America/Argentina/Salta  
-03:00 America/Argentina/San_Juan  
-03:00 America/Argentina/Tucuman  
-03:00 America/Argentina/Ushuaia  
-03:00 America/Bahia  
-03:00 America/Belem  
-03:00 America/Cayenne  
-03:00 America/Fortaleza  
-03:00 America/Godthab  
-03:00 America/Maceio  
-03:00 America/Miquelon  
-03:00 America/Montevideo  
-03:00 America/Paramaribo  
-03:00 America/Recife  
-03:00 America/Santarem  
-03:00 America/Sao_Paulo Brazil/East
-03:00 Antarctica/Rothera  
-03:00 Etc/GMT+3  
-02:00 America/Noronha Brazil/DeNoronha
-02:00 Atlantic/South_Georgia  
-02:00 Etc/GMT+2  
-01:00 America/Scoresbysund  
-01:00 Atlantic/Azores  
-01:00 Atlantic/Cape_Verde  
-01:00 Etc/GMT+1  
+00:00 Africa/Abidjan  
+00:00 Africa/Accra  
+00:00 Africa/Bamako Africa/Timbuktu
+00:00 Africa/Banjul  
+00:00 Africa/Bissau  
+00:00 Africa/Casablanca  
+00:00 Africa/Conakry  
+00:00 Africa/Dakar  
+00:00 Africa/El_Aaiun  
+00:00 Africa/Freetown  
+00:00 Africa/Lome  
+00:00 Africa/Monrovia  
+00:00 Africa/Nouakchott  
+00:00 Africa/Ouagadougou  
+00:00 Africa/Sao_Tome  
+00:00 America/Danmarkshavn  
+00:00 Atlantic/Canary  
+00:00 Atlantic/Faroe Atlantic/Faeroe
+00:00 Atlantic/Madeira  
+00:00 Atlantic/Reykjavik Iceland
+00:00 Atlantic/St_Helena  
+00:00 Etc/GMT Etc/GMT+0, Etc/GMT-0, Etc/GMT0, Etc/Greenwich, GMT, GMT+0, GMT-0, GMT0, Greenwich
+00:00 Etc/UCT UCT
+00:00 Etc/UTC Etc/Universal, Etc/Zulu, Universal, Zulu
+00:00 Europe/Dublin Eire
+00:00 Europe/Lisbon Portugal
+00:00 Europe/London Europe/Belfast, Europe/Guernsey, Europe/Isle_of_Man, Europe/Jersey, GB, GB-Eire
+00:00 UTC  
+00:00 WET  
+01:00 Africa/Algiers  
+01:00 Africa/Bangui  
+01:00 Africa/Brazzaville  
+01:00 Africa/Ceuta  
+01:00 Africa/Douala  
+01:00 Africa/Kinshasa  
+01:00 Africa/Lagos  
+01:00 Africa/Libreville  
+01:00 Africa/Luanda  
+01:00 Africa/Malabo  
+01:00 Africa/Ndjamena  
+01:00 Africa/Niamey  
+01:00 Africa/Porto-Novo  
+01:00 Africa/Tunis  
+01:00 Africa/Windhoek  
+01:00 CET  
+01:00 Etc/GMT-1  
+01:00 Europe/Amsterdam  
+01:00 Europe/Andorra  
+01:00 Europe/Belgrade Europe/Ljubljana, Europe/Podgorica, Europe/Sarajevo, Europe/Skopje, Europe/Zagreb
+01:00 Europe/Berlin  
+01:00 Europe/Brussels  
+01:00 Europe/Budapest  
+01:00 Europe/Copenhagen  
+01:00 Europe/Gibraltar  
+01:00 Europe/Luxembourg  
+01:00 Europe/Madrid  
+01:00 Europe/Malta  
+01:00 Europe/Monaco  
+01:00 Europe/Oslo Arctic/Longyearbyen, Atlantic/Jan_Mayen
+01:00 Europe/Paris  
+01:00 Europe/Prague Europe/Bratislava
+01:00 Europe/Rome Europe/San_Marino, Europe/Vatican
+01:00 Europe/Stockholm  
+01:00 Europe/Tirane  
+01:00 Europe/Vaduz  
+01:00 Europe/Vienna  
+01:00 Europe/Warsaw Poland
+01:00 Europe/Zurich  
+01:00 MET  
+02:00 Africa/Blantyre  
+02:00 Africa/Bujumbura  
+02:00 Africa/Cairo Egypt
+02:00 Africa/Gaborone  
+02:00 Africa/Harare  
+02:00 Africa/Johannesburg  
+02:00 Africa/Kigali  
+02:00 Africa/Lubumbashi  
+02:00 Africa/Lusaka  
+02:00 Africa/Maputo  
+02:00 Africa/Maseru  
+02:00 Africa/Mbabane  
+02:00 Africa/Tripoli Libya
+02:00 Asia/Amman  
+02:00 Asia/Beirut  
+02:00 Asia/Damascus  
+02:00 Asia/Gaza  
+02:00 Asia/Jerusalem Asia/Tel_Aviv, Israel
+02:00 Asia/Nicosia Europe/Nicosia
+02:00 EET  
+02:00 Etc/GMT-2  
+02:00 Europe/Athens  
+02:00 Europe/Bucharest  
+02:00 Europe/Chisinau Europe/Tiraspol
+02:00 Europe/Helsinki Europe/Mariehamn
+02:00 Europe/Istanbul Asia/Istanbul, Turkey
+02:00 Europe/Kaliningrad  
+02:00 Europe/Kiev  
+02:00 Europe/Minsk  
+02:00 Europe/Riga  
+02:00 Europe/Simferopol  
+02:00 Europe/Sofia  
+02:00 Europe/Tallinn  
+02:00 Europe/Uzhgorod  
+02:00 Europe/Vilnius  
+02:00 Europe/Zaporozhye  
+03:00 Africa/Addis_Ababa  
+03:00 Africa/Asmara Africa/Asmera
+03:00 Africa/Dar_es_Salaam  
+03:00 Africa/Djibouti  
+03:00 Africa/Kampala  
+03:00 Africa/Khartoum  
+03:00 Africa/Mogadishu  
+03:00 Africa/Nairobi  
+03:00 Antarctica/Syowa  
+03:00 Asia/Aden  
+03:00 Asia/Baghdad  
+03:00 Asia/Bahrain  
+03:00 Asia/Kuwait  
+03:00 Asia/Qatar  
+03:00 Asia/Riyadh  
+03:00 Etc/GMT-3  
+03:00 Europe/Moscow W-SU
+03:00 Europe/Samara  
+03:00 Europe/Volgograd  
+03:00 Indian/Antananarivo  
+03:00 Indian/Comoro  
+03:00 Indian/Mayotte  
+03:30 Asia/Tehran Iran
+04:00 Asia/Baku  
+04:00 Asia/Dubai  
+04:00 Asia/Muscat  
+04:00 Asia/Tbilisi  
+04:00 Asia/Yerevan  
+04:00 Etc/GMT-4  
+04:00 Indian/Mahe  
+04:00 Indian/Mauritius  
+04:00 Indian/Reunion  
+04:30 Asia/Kabul  
+05:00 Antarctica/Mawson  
+05:00 Asia/Aqtau  
+05:00 Asia/Aqtobe  
+05:00 Asia/Ashgabat Asia/Ashkhabad
+05:00 Asia/Dushanbe  
+05:00 Asia/Karachi  
+05:00 Asia/Oral  
+05:00 Asia/Samarkand  
+05:00 Asia/Tashkent  
+05:00 Asia/Yekaterinburg  
+05:00 Etc/GMT-5  
+05:00 Indian/Kerguelen  
+05:00 Indian/Maldives  
+05:30 Asia/Colombo  
+05:30 Asia/Kolkata Asia/Calcutta
+05:45 Asia/Kathmandu Asia/Katmandu
+06:00 Antarctica/Vostok  
+06:00 Asia/Almaty  
+06:00 Asia/Bishkek  
+06:00 Asia/Dhaka Asia/Dacca
+06:00 Asia/Novokuznetsk  
+06:00 Asia/Novosibirsk  
+06:00 Asia/Omsk  
+06:00 Asia/Qyzylorda  
+06:00 Asia/Thimphu Asia/Thimbu
+06:00 Etc/GMT-6  
+06:00 Indian/Chagos  
+06:30 Asia/Rangoon  
+06:30 Indian/Cocos  
+07:00 Antarctica/Davis  
+07:00 Asia/Bangkok  
+07:00 Asia/Ho_Chi_Minh Asia/Saigon
+07:00 Asia/Hovd  
+07:00 Asia/Jakarta  
+07:00 Asia/Krasnoyarsk  
+07:00 Asia/Phnom_Penh  
+07:00 Asia/Pontianak  
+07:00 Asia/Vientiane  
+07:00 Etc/GMT-7  
+07:00 Indian/Christmas  
+08:00 Antarctica/Casey  
+08:00 Asia/Brunei  
+08:00 Asia/Choibalsan  
+08:00 Asia/Chongqing Asia/Chungking
+08:00 Asia/Harbin  
+08:00 Asia/Hong_Kong Hongkong
+08:00 Asia/Irkutsk  
+08:00 Asia/Kashgar  
+08:00 Asia/Kuala_Lumpur  
+08:00 Asia/Kuching  
+08:00 Asia/Macau Asia/Macao
+08:00 Asia/Makassar Asia/Ujung_Pandang
+08:00 Asia/Manila  
+08:00 Asia/Shanghai PRC
+08:00 Asia/Singapore Singapore
+08:00 Asia/Taipei ROC
+08:00 Asia/Ulaanbaatar Asia/Ulan_Bator
+08:00 Asia/Urumqi  
+08:00 Australia/Perth Australia/West
+08:00 Etc/GMT-8  
+08:45 Australia/Eucla  
+09:00 Asia/Dili  
+09:00 Asia/Jayapura  
+09:00 Asia/Pyongyang  
+09:00 Asia/Seoul ROK
+09:00 Asia/Tokyo Japan
+09:00 Asia/Yakutsk  
+09:00 Etc/GMT-9  
+09:00 Pacific/Palau  
+09:30 Australia/Adelaide Australia/South
+09:30 Australia/Broken_Hill Australia/Yancowinna
+09:30 Australia/Darwin Australia/North
+10:00 Antarctica/DumontDUrville  
+10:00 Asia/Sakhalin  
+10:00 Asia/Vladivostok  
+10:00 Australia/Brisbane Australia/Queensland
+10:00 Australia/Currie  
+10:00 Australia/Hobart Australia/Tasmania
+10:00 Australia/Lindeman  
+10:00 Australia/Melbourne Australia/Victoria
+10:00 Australia/Sydney Australia/ACT, Australia/Canberra, Australia/NSW
+10:00 Etc/GMT-10  
+10:00 Pacific/Chuuk Pacific/Truk, Pacific/Yap
+10:00 Pacific/Guam  
+10:00 Pacific/Port_Moresby  
+10:00 Pacific/Saipan  
+10:30 Australia/Lord_Howe Australia/LHI
+11:00 Antarctica/Macquarie  
+11:00 Asia/Anadyr  
+11:00 Asia/Kamchatka  
+11:00 Asia/Magadan  
+11:00 Etc/GMT-11  
+11:00 Pacific/Efate  
+11:00 Pacific/Guadalcanal  
+11:00 Pacific/Kosrae  
+11:00 Pacific/Noumea  
+11:00 Pacific/Pohnpei Pacific/Ponape
+11:30 Pacific/Norfolk  
+12:00 Antarctica/McMurdo Antarctica/South_Pole
+12:00 Etc/GMT-12  
+12:00 Pacific/Auckland NZ
+12:00 Pacific/Fiji  
+12:00 Pacific/Funafuti  
+12:00 Pacific/Kwajalein Kwajalein
+12:00 Pacific/Majuro  
+12:00 Pacific/Nauru  
+12:00 Pacific/Tarawa  
+12:00 Pacific/Wake  
+12:00 Pacific/Wallis  
+12:45 Pacific/Chatham NZ-CHAT
+13:00 Etc/GMT-13  
+13:00 Pacific/Enderbury  
+13:00 Pacific/Tongatapu  
+14:00 Etc/GMT-14  
+14:00 Pacific/Kiritimati